Traditional intellectual and creative contributions at the national level in most African countries still generate disdain rather than respect. Lack of respect explains one of the obstacles towards building upon grassroots tradition of innovation in African countries In addition, intellectual property rights in some African countries are indeed ineffective and obsolete. African countries have not fully apprehended the dynamics of intellectual property developments in the global and international arena. In the area of traditional knowledge, there are attempts to protect traditional medicine knowledge, but there is limited effort in linking it up with the global trends. Apart from the need to control the theft or unauthorised exploitation of traditional knowledge and related resources, it is also very important for Africa to develop its knowledge system and to review all aspects of intellectual property rights for socio-economic development.