Background: The study of dental anomalies is important because it generates information that is important for
both the anthropological and clinical management of patients. The objective of this study is to determine the
prevalence and pattern of presentation of dental hard-tissue developmental anomalies in the mix dentition of
children residing in Ile-Ife, a suburban region of Nigeria.
Methods: Information on age, sex and socioeconomic status was collected from 1,036 children aged four months
to 12 years through a household survey. Clinical examination was conducted to assess the presence of dental
anomalies. Associations between age, sex, socioeconomic status, prevalence, and pattern of presentation of the
developmental hard-tissue dental anomalies were determined.
Result: Two hundred and seventy six (26.6%) children had dental anomalies. Of these, 23.8% had one anomaly, 2.5%
had two anomalies, and 0.3% had more than two anomalies. Of the children with anomalies, 49.3%were male, 50.7%
were female, and 47.8%, 28.6% and 23.6% were children from low, middle and high socioeconomic classes,
respectively. More anomalies were seen in permanent than primary dentition. Anomalies of tooth structure were most
prevalent (16.1%); anomalies which affect tooth number were least prevalent (1.3%). Dens evaginatus, peg-shaped
lateral, macrodontia, and talon cusp were more prevalent in the permanent dentition, and dens evaginatus peg-shaped
lateral and macrodontia were more prevalent in the maxilla. There were significantly more macrodontia anomalies in
males and in children of high socioeconomic status.
Conclusion: This large survey of dental hard-tissue anomalies found in the primary dentition and mixed dentition of
children in Nigeria provides anthropological and clinical data that may aid the detection and management of dental
problems of children in Nigeria.