Objective: Garden croton, Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume, a
beautifully variegated leafy perennial, tropical ornamental herb
with glabrous branches and prominent leafy scar has
generated a lot of scientific enquiry. However, there is paucity
of information on its toxicity. This study investigated the effects
of aqueous and alcoholic leaf extracts of C. variegatum on
blood clotting and coagulation time, as well as the antimicrobial
and phytochemical profile of its bioactive constituents.
Results: The leaf methanolic extract tested positive for alkaloid,
anthraquinone, cardiac glycosides, saponins, phlobatanins,
tannins, cardenolids, steroids, flavonoids, phenols and
phyllates. The ethanolic extract of leaf inhibited growth of
Streptococcus pneumoniae Te2 (30 mm), S. pyrogeneae Td2
(14 mm), Salmonella typhi Tc2 (7 mm), S. typhi Tc19 (13 mm),
S. typhi Sat7 (10 mm) and Escherichia coli Ecl7 (17 mm).Furthermore, results indicated that the clotting / bleeding time
of methanolic extract of C. variegatum (3.98 ± 1.62 min) was
significantly higher (P< 0> 0.38 min) and control (normal saline) (2.35 ± 0.70 min).
Although the investigation revealed no blood coagulation by
the leaf aqueous extract, the methanolic extract (3.08 ± 2.5
min) and control (4.95±3.40 min) exhibited a coagulation
tendency at the time of study.
Conclusion: Both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of C.
variegatum cv. ovalifolium possess bioactive metabolites with
anti-clotting, anti-coagulating and antimicrobial properties.