The Oversee Development Institute, funded by UNICEF, carried out a research on the state of Social Protection in Nigeria. The 2012 reports revealed that there are three key deficits in social protection services regarding child protection which are: child trafficking; harmful forms of child labor; and child domestic abuse. Also the research reported that here is a need for a more coordinated and equity-based response to social protection, particularly in the context of HIV and AIDS in Nigeria. The research also explored the possibilities of cash transfers as a method of alleviating poverty in the country. While the nation struggles with developing and strengthening social protection linkages and services, it is well known that there are indigenous systems that have informally sustained social wellness in traditional settings. This paper presents both secondary literature and primary data on indigenous social care (ISC) as reported in structured interviews with traditional leaders and community focus group discussions in Enugu, Sokoto, Akure, Aiyepe and a local Ibibio community. Preliminary findings revealed indigenous social care such as informal adoption and foster care, deviant behavior control, care of the elderly, family preservation and cash transfer systems. The goal of this paper is to review current ISC practices and present ISC as a viable option for bridging the gaps identified by the Oversea Development Institute research report on child welfare and HIV vulnerabilities.