Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Variously Treated Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean Shell Based Diets

Performance and Egg Quality of Laying Hens Fed Variously Treated Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) Bean Shell Based Diets

Author by Dr. Martha Olumide

Journal/Publisher: International Journal Of Livestock Research

Volume/Edition: 7

Language: English

Pages: 21 - 34

Abstract

Cocoa Bean Shell (CBS) is a potential source of protein and energy substitute for grains in livestock diets. However, there is paucity of information on the extent of its replacement value for maize in layers diet. The level to which CBS can be utilized by layers was evaluated.The Raw CBS, (RCBS), Enzyme Rovabio Treated CBS (ECBS) and CBS Fermented by solid state (FCBS) were evaluated for their contents of Crude Protein (CP), Crude Fiber (CF), Ether Extract (EE), Metabolisable Energy (ME) and Theobromine. Total of 140 laying hens at 6-week in lay was used in this experiment with 20 birds per treatment in a 2 x 3 factorial arrangement. The experiment lasted for eight weeks.  Hen Day Production (HDP), internal and external egg quality characteristics were monitored. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and ANOVA. this study investigated the effect of treated cocoa bean shell based-diets on performance (Feed intake, Egg production, feed efficiency), egg quality (egg weight, egg shell thickness, Haught Unit, yolk Colour, egg length, egg width, egg shape index, shell weight and shell surface area, yolk weight, yolk height, yolk width, albumen weight, albumen height, yolk Colour, yolk index). No significant difference was observed in the crude fiber and ether extract values. The corresponding ME (Kcal/Kg) values were 2308.1 ± 3.1, 2415.0 ± 2.9 and 2470.0 ± 2.2 respectively. Fermentation and addition of enzymes reduce theobromine to 0.72 and 0.81 respectively while the highest value was recorded for RCBS (0.85). The FI (g/day) of layers on 10% RCBS (94.0) and ECBS (97.1) compared favorably with that of control (98.8). External egg quality parameter (egg shape index, shell weight and thickness) FCR, and Haught unit were not significantly different while the HDP (%) of birds fed 10?BS (85.3) compared with birds on the control (85.6). Enzyme-treated cocoa bean shell effectively replaced up to 10% maize in layers diets. Furthermore, substituting 10% maize with raw cocoa bean shell enhanced laying performance.


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