African yam bean (Sphenostylis stenocarpa A.Rich) Harms constitutes one of the grain legumes that could be taken as a source of dietary protein. It consists of valuable proteins and other nutrients that can compare favourably with those found in other widely consumed beans such as Vigna unguiculata Linn. (Walp). Though, African yam bean is cultivated and consumed in some parts of South Western Nigeria, yet it has not gained much recognition because its importance is yet to be determined. Major crop plants such as Soybean and Cowpea are replacing minor crops like African yam bean, hence the need for it to be studied for improvement breeding programmes. Seeds of 18 accessions were planted on four experimental plots using Randomised Complete Block Design (RCBD) and monitored from planting to seedling emergence. Vegetative characters were observed and compared for the various accessions. The growth pattern for each of the cultivars was monitored and average measurements were taken on parameters such as plant height, length of internodes, number of internodes per plant, length of leaves, width of leaves. Leaf epidermal anatomy was also studied. Results obtained showed that the cultivars are phenotypically identical as they exhibited similar growth patterns and structural habits. In spite of the morphological similarities observed in the four major colour types –Brown, Grey, Red, and Black, Leaf epidermal anatomy revealed the presence of two types of stomata which were the Diacytic and Amphipericytic stomata.