Phytochemical analysis of the ethanolic and aqueous leaf, stem and root extracts of V. amygdalina
showed that it contains saponins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, terpenes and
deoxy-sugar in different proportions. Out of the seven (7) phytochemicals present, only three
(phenolics, flavonoids and de-oxysugar) were present in all the sample extracts, with variations in the
other four (4). Five (5) bacteria (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Bacillus subtilis, B. megaterium,
Klebsiella aerogens and S. aureus) and three (3) fungus (Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, Candida
albicans) were isolated from the refuse dunghill and used as test isolates against the sample extracts.
The ethanolic extracts of V. amygdalina showed more inhibition activity against all the bacterial and
fungal isolates than the aqueous extracts. In conclusion, the leaf, stem and root extracts of V.
amygdalina is a good antimicrobial agent which has both cidal and static effects against bacterial and
fungal isolates found in the environment, especially contaminated soils with highest antimicrobial
potential observed in the ethanolic extracts