The management of land resource is imperative to achieve sustainable food production and development and to ensure agricultural sustainability, as highlighted in the millennium development goals. This study assessed the effect of Sustainable Land Management Practices (SLMP) on efficiency of production of maize and cassava in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 388 respondents for this study. Information collected covered farmers? socio-economic characteristics, inputs and output values and specific SLMPs used. The SLMPs studied included Structural and Mechanical Erosion Control (SMEC), Agronomic Practices (AP), Cultivation Practices (CP) and Soil Management Practices (SMP). Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and the stochastic frontier profit function. The farmers had an average of nine years of formal education, 54% participated in Community Based Organizations (CBOs), 91% had access to extension education, 55% had land tenancy security and 81?voured the use of AP more than other SLMPs. About 47% of the farmers cultivated undulating farmlands which were vulnerable to degradation. In maize production, a percentage increase in the use of SMEC, AP and CP reduced profit inefficiency by 2.37%, 0.44% and 0.21% respectively. Similarly, in cassava production, a percentage increase in the use of SMEC, AP and CP reduced profit inefficiency by 1.06%, 1.25% and 0.55% respectively. Other factors which reduced profit inefficiency in maize and cassava production included farmers? experience in farming, their access to extension services and credit facility, years of formal education, participation in CBOs and government initiated programmes. Overall results from this study show that the adoption of SLMPs contributes significantly to the reduction in profit inefficiency.