Objective. Caries is a major oral health problem children with efforts focused on promoting use of caries prevention methods. The aim of the study is to assess the effect of a school-based oral health education programme on use of oral self-care measures for reducing caries. Methods. A structured school-based oral health education programme was implemented in six schools in Ile-Ife, Nigeria for 4 years. At the end of the project, information was sought from school children in their last year and final 2 years of studies on the use of fluoridated toothpaste, consumption of sugar-containing snacks more than once a day, frequency of tooth brushing and flossing, and time of the last dental check-up. Pre- dictors of the use of preventive oral health prac- tices for caries were determined. Results. School children who received the inter- vention were more likely to report frequent use of fluoride-containing toothpastes (P < 0.001), more likely to brush twice a day (P = 0.03), less likely to consuming sugar-containing snacks less than once a day (P = 0.03) and less likely to use dental floss once a day (P < 0.001) when compared to the control group. Conclusion. This long term school based educa- tional programme was able to increase school chil- drenâ€™s use of fluoride-containing toothpaste and twice daily tooth brushing, which are critical tools for reducing the risk of caries.