Background: This study determines prevalence of digit sucking and gingivitis, and association among age, sex, so- cioeconomic status, presence of digit-sucking habits, oral hy- giene status (OHS), and gingivitis among a group of Nigerian children. Methods: Data of 992 children aged 1 to 12 years recruited through a household survey conducted in Osun State, Nigeria were analyzed. Information on age, sex, socioeconomic status, and history of digit-sucking habits were collected. Children were assessed for OHS and severity of gingivitis using the sim- plified oral hygiene index and the gingival index, respectively. Predictors of presence of gingivitis and poor oral hygiene were determined using multivariate logistic regression. Results: One (0.2%) and 454 (93.0%) children aged 1 to 5 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. Twenty-two (4.4%) and 361 (72.9%) children aged 6 to 12 years had poor oral hygiene and mild gingivitis, respectively. The odds of having poor oral hygiene (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.20 to 0.35; P <0.001) and gingivitis (AOR: 0.21; 95% CI: 0.14 to 0.31; P <0.001) was significantly reduced for children aged 1 to 5 years. The odds of having gingivitis was increased in children with low so- cioeconomic status (AOR: 2.09; 95% CI: 1.32 to 3.31; P = 0.002). There was no significant relationship among sex, digit sucking, OHS, and presence of gingivitis. Conclusions: A digit-sucking habit did not increase chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis. Increasing age and low socioeconomic status were factors that significantly in- creased chances of having poor oral hygiene and gingivitis.