Background: The objectives of this study were to assess the association between children and parentsâ€™ knowledge of caries preventive practices, the parentsâ€™ caries preventive oral health behaviours and childrenâ€™s caries preventive oral health behaviour and caries experience. Method: Three hundred and twenty four participants aged 8â€“12 years, 308 fathers and 318 mothers were recruited through a household survey conducted in Suburban Nigeria. A questionnaire was administered to generate information on fathers, mothers and childrenâ€™s knowledge of caries prevention measures and their oral health behaviour. Clinical examination was conducted on the children to determine their dmft/DMFT. Analysis was conducted to determine the predictors of the childrenâ€™s good oral health behaviour. Result: The mothersâ€™ oral health behaviours were significant predictors of the childrenâ€™s oral health behaviours. Children who had good knowledge of caries prevention measures had significant increased odds of brushing their teeth twice daily or more. The childrenâ€™s caries prevalence was 13.9%, the mean dmft was 0.2 and the mean DMFT was 0.09. None of the dependent variables could predict the presence of caries in children. Conclusion: The study highlights the effect of maternal oral health behaviour on the oral health behaviour of children aged 8 years to 12 years in suburban Nigeria. A pilot study is needed to evaluate how enhanced maternal preventive oral health practices can improve the oral health preventive practices of children.