Political-economy as an approach and theory gives a better and clearer insight of human society in relations with different social structures that functions its effective running. The class analysis in the society and its effects brought about the social responsibility of the state, and the underlying forces and motives behind government policies, actions and inactions of phenomenon of the COVID 19 pandemic and the attendant mystery that surrounds it in Nigeria. The COVID 19 pandemic has exposed the structural and deep systemic weakness, specifically Nigerian political economy and security challenges. The attendant revelation showed how there could be unequal relations between the leaders and citizens in the distribution of palliative measures within the polity during the rampaging period ofcovid19 pandemic. Measures to combat the rate of the spread saw the society being locked down; hence many sectors of the economy could not function except for essential ones. Consequently many people were deprived of their means of livelihood. The paper therefore examined the political economy of COVID 19 and the attendant security challenges in Nigeria. The study concluded based on the findings that there has been a problem from the Nigerian leaders to separate politics from economics, considering political bankruptcy in Nigeria and direct interference of investible capital out of the society. This had played fundamental roles of restricting the possibilities of growth and development both in Nigeria and indeed Africa.