Diversity and toxigenicity of fungi and description of Fusarium madaense sp. nov. from cereals, legumes and soils in north-central Nigeria

Diversity and toxigenicity of fungi and description of Fusarium madaense sp. nov. from cereals, legumes and soils in north-central Nigeria

Author by Prof. Chibundu Ezekiel

Journal/Publisher: Mycokeys

Volume/Edition: 67

Language: English

Pages: 95 - 124

Abstract

Mycological investigation of various foods (mainly cowpea, groundnut, maize, rice, sorghum) and agricultural
soils from two states in north-central Nigeria (Nasarawa and Niger), was conducted in order to
understand the role of filamentous fungi in food contamination and public health. A total of 839 fungal
isolates were recovered from 84% of the 250 food and all 30 soil samples. Preliminary identifications were
made, based on macro- and micromorphological characters. Representative strains (n = 121) were studied
in detail using morphology and DNA sequencing, involving genera/species-specific markers, while
extrolite profiles using LC-MS/MS were obtained for a selection of strains. The representative strains
grouped in seven genera (Aspergillus, Fusarium, Macrophomina, Meyerozyma, Neocosmospora, Neotestudina and Phoma). Amongst the 21 species that were isolated during this study was one novel species belonging to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex, F. madaense sp. nov., obtained from groundnut and sorghum
in Nasarawa state. The examined strains produced diverse extrolites, including several uncommon compounds:
averantinmethylether in A. aflatoxiformans; aspergillimide in A. flavus; heptelidic acid in A. austwickii;
desoxypaxillin, kotanin A and paspalitrems (A and B) in A. aflatoxiformans, A. austwickii and A.
cerealis; aurasperon C, dimethylsulochrin, fellutanine A, methylorsellinic acid, nigragillin and pyrophen
in A. brunneoviolaceus; cyclosporins (A, B, C and H) in A. niger; methylorsellinic acid, pyrophen and
secalonic acid in A. piperis; aspulvinone E, fonsecin, kojic acid, kotanin A, malformin C, pyranonigrin
and pyrophen in A. vadensis; and all compounds in F. madaense sp. nov., Meyerozyma, Neocosmospora and
Neotestudina. This study provides snapshot data for prediction of food contamination and fungal biodiversity
exploitation.

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