Background and Objective: Balanites aegyptiaca fruit is a useful source of hypoglycaemic remedy for management of diabetes in some part of Northern Nigeria. This study evaluated the effects of fractionated ethanol extracts of Balanites aegyptiaca fruit-mesocarp (BAFM) in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanol crude extract of BAFM was fractionated with water and ethyl acetate (1:1 v/v) then separated to obtain the specific extract-fraction. The extract-fractions were evaluated for antidiabetic activities in rats induced with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus was induced in male Wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injection of streptozotocin at a dose of 60 mg kg–1 body weight. Results: From the results, rats induced with diabetes were characterized by low serum insulin, hyperglycemia and decrease in body weights. Treatment with the extract-fractions of BAFM elevated serum insulin, lowered fasting blood glucose levels and reversed serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, serum albumin and total protein. The aqueous fraction (AFF) was more comparable in lowering fasting blood glucose by 18.61% when compared to 24.62% by metformin. A significant increase in serum insulin levels was recorded in diabetic rats treated with AFF when compared to diabetic control rats and diabetic rats treated with ethyl acetate fraction. Conclusion: Both aqueous and ethyl acetate extract-fractions of BAFM exert hypoglycaemic, antihyperglycaemic and antilipidaemic effects. However, the aqueous fraction was more potent. This study is a step towards the isolation of bioactive components. Further research is needed to explore the bioactive component(s) responsible for the antidiabetic effects.