Pattern of serum bilirubin changes following double volume exchange blood transfusion in neonates at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria

Pattern of serum bilirubin changes following double volume exchange blood transfusion in neonates at a tertiary health facility in Nigeria

Author by Dr. Olufunmilola Abolurin

Journal/Publisher: Panafrican Medical Journal

Volume/Edition: 39

Language: English

Pages: 1 - 7

Abstract

Introduction: exchange blood transfusion (EBT) is a form of massive transfusion useful in rapidly reducing serum bilirubin levels, but serum bilirubin levels frequently rebound within hours of completing the procedure, due to equilibration of extravascular bilirubin as well as on-going hemolysis. The study was carried out to determine the pattern of reduction in serum bilirubin levels following EBT among neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia, as well as the factors contributing to this pattern, so as to establish evidence-based expectations following EBT.

 

Methods: a retrospective descriptive study covering a two-year period in a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Details of the EBT procedures, including serial serum bilirubin levels, were obtained from the hospital records of all newborn babies who had double volume EBT done for severe hyperbilirubinaemia during the study period. Data was analyzed using the statistical software SPSS version 21.0.

 

Results: the mean total serum bilirubin (TSB) before EBT in the 36 babies was 17.9 ± 6.3 mg/dl. The mean percentage decrease in TSB immediately following EBT was 44.3 ± 10.2%. Six hours after EBT, TSB levels had increased from the immediate post-EBT values by an average of 57.5 ± 32.2%. Twenty-four hours after the procedure, TSB values in most (87.1%) cases were still higher than the immediate post-EBT values, but lower than the pre-EBT values. Post-EBT anemia was recorded among 33.3% of the babies.

 

Conclusion: EBT is effective in rapidly reducing serum bilirubin levels and preventing acute bilirubin encephalopathy in neonates with severe hyperbilirubinemia, despite the rebound increase that occurs in TSB values after the procedure.


Other Co-Authors