Introduction: Technological devices have become a very important part of our everyday life. These electronic devices create an artificial electromagnetic field (EMF) and emit radiofrequency radiations (RFR) which have been reported to have deleterious effects on various tissues in living organisms. Fish oil is a rich source of the n-3 (also known as omega-3) fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). The cerebellum plays an important role in motor control and the coordination, precision and timing of movements, as well as in motor learning. This study investigated the effect of radiofrequency radiation on the structures of the cerebellum of adolescent Wistar rats, its effect on pre-pubertal development and the potential attenuative properties of fish oil omega-3 fat.
Materials and Methods: Forty (n=40) adolescent Wistar rats of approximately 35 days old were divided into five groups labelled A-E. A 4G RFR-emitting WI-FI device served as the RFR source. The 4G radiofrequency transmitter was installed at a distance of 0.5 meters from the base of the cage housing the experimental animals in each group. The fish oil was administered orally to the animals. Rats were sacrificed after 28 days of treatment and their brains harvested. The cerebellar tissues were excised and processed for histological, immunohistochemical and biochemical observations. Neurobehavioural studies including Barnes Maze and beam walk were carried out before sacrifice.
Results: 4G radiofrequency radiation caused distortions in the morphology and spatial arrangement of Purkinje cells in the cerebellar tissues. It also induced neuroinflammation as marked by enhanced astrocyte reactions. Also, behavioural aberrations including negative changes in key memory parameters such as increased latency and error poke in Barnes maze assays, and increased movement parameter errors were attributable to FRR effects. Also, aberrations in neurotransmitters activities levels and vital neurochemistry enzymes were observed. The administered Omega-3 fat had an attenuative effect on the affected cortical structures, neurochemistry and selected neurobehavioural parameters.