The effects of yeast culture and fibrolytic enzyme preparation (containing cellulase and xylanase) on in vitro fermentation characteristics of rice straw, wheat straw, maize stover, and maize stover silage were examined using an in vitro gas production technique. Four levels of yeast culture and fibrolytic enzyme supplements (0, 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 g/kg of straw DM, respectively) were tested in a 4 × 4 factorial arrangement. Supplementation of yeast culture increased the cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production, rate of gas production, IVDMD, and in vitro OM disappearance (IVOMD), and decreased the lag time for each type of straw. Fibrolytic enzyme supplementation tended to increase cumulative gas production, theoretical maximum of gas production, and rate of gas production; prolonged lag time of gas production; and enhanced IVDMD and IVOMD for 4 types of cereal straws, with the significance of this effect being dependent on the level of supplemented enzymes. There were significant interactions between fibrolytic enzymes and yeast on all in vitro gas production parameters, IVDMD, and IVOMD of each type of straw. The outcome of this research indicated that the application of fibrolytic enzyme preparation and yeast culture could improve in vitro gas production fermentation of cereal straws.